Family Names

Sunday, 21 May 2017

Untangling the Carbis evidence between 1816 & 1828

Article 3 - Convict Ancestors & Relations


William Carbis Senior/The Older

Once the ship Ocean was moored in Port Jackson NSW a local official came on board the ship to conduct a muster.[i] The official welcomed and simultaneously cautioned them as to what was expected of them, and arrangements were made for their disembarkation.  The convicts that arrived on the Ocean were sent to one of three places for distribution, Parramatta, Windsor or Liverpool.[ii] William Carbis Snr., William Carbis Jnr. and Francis Bassett travelled to Mr Cox Esq J.P in Windsor by cart with 63 other Ocean convicts.[iii]  Only 3 of those sent to Windsor were pre-assigned to settlers, the others would stay at Mr. Richard Fitzgerald’s House. The house had been rented by the government to accommodate the Convicts sent to Windsor until further arrangements were completed for their placement with a settler.[iv]

I had always assumed that convicts sentenced to life lead lives of incarceration and servitude. However, this was not the case.  All sorts of arrangements were entered into that are not revealed in the annual convict musters.  Below is a summary of what has been found (to date) in the musters for William Carbis Sen., William Carbis Jnr. and Francis Bassett.

Summary of Convict Musters between1816-1828 constructed from available records.
William Carbis Sen.
After arriving in Windsor a muster was taken a year later, and William Carbis Snr was listed as a settlerman but both William Carbis Jnr and Francis Bassett are both listed as government Servants.[v] There appears to be a change in William Carbis Snr status between 1817 and 1820 as he becomes a government servant.[vi] Why there has been a change in his status is not clear.  Reasons could include the following possibilities, a clerical error, or he may have not coped as a settlerman in a foreign land and been re-classified as a government servant or may have been considered to have lied about his trade (husbandman on marriage certificate vs seaman on arrest/convict records). By the 1819 convict muster, it stated that he was sent to Mr. J. Campbell, along with 7 others serving life-sentence’s who had also arrived on the Ocean in 1816.[vii] By the 1822 muster he was listed as a farmer.[viii] In order for this to occur he must have received his Ticket of Leave.[ix]  The 1822 muster tells us that his son William Carbis Jun. is assigned to him as a government servant. In 1828 Francis Bassett, who received his ticket of leave in 1822,  joins William Snr. on his farm as a labourer.[x]
In the muster documents, it appears that William Snr. and William Jun. were both assigned to J. Campbell. However, there is some evidence to contradict this. In a letter written by William Carbis Jun. in an application for his ticket of leave it appears he worked for either Win Bawn and/or C M Doyle (who both signed the supporting statement) from 1816 to 1822.[xi]

SRNSW, Colonial Secretary Correspondence Letters Received 1826-1934 Petitions, 4/2247, 34/205 excerpt concerning William Carbis petition for a Conditional Pardon
It is confusing to untangle the detail as many private arrangements could also be made. A man could spend part of the day 'working in servitude' and the other part of the day working for himself as explained in the quote below.
“When male or female convicts arrived in Sydney or Hobart in the first fifty years, they were usually assigned to work either for the government or for a private individual. In the early years the government provided a food allowance for those who were privately assigned, while their masters obtained the benefit of their work. Until tighter regulations were introduced, both privately and publicly assigned convicts were allowed to work for themselves in the afternoons, earning an income. In effect, part of the day was their own. Some lived in accommodation supplied by their masters, while many others lived in their own housing.”[xii]

In conclusion
At the age of 55, William Carbis Senior found himself in a new country working as a government labourer in Windsor NSW as the servant of Mr J.T.Campbell.[xiv]   We know that between 1816 – 1828 William Carbis Senior was a government servant, although he may have been a settlerman for a short time after arrival in 1816. He may have worked both as a government servant to someone, (yet to be identified), part of the day, and for himself as some sort of farmer in the afternoon. By 1821 he is a farmer possibly after receiving his Ticket of Leave in the same year, it appears that his son who has been working as a government servant for either Win Bawn and/or C M Doyle came to work for him. 

However, by the end of the Muster of 1822, he had received his Ticket of leave and become a farmer.[xv]  It also appears that Francis Bassett may also have worked for him in 1822 after receiving his Ticket of leave for a short time before going to Richmond.[xvi] 


In 1828 census William Carbis Senior was 67 years old and had seven convicts working for him on his farm in Lower Portland Headland in the Hawkesbury area, including his son and his son-in-law.[xvi] His son had joined “his aged father” according to the Muster in 1827.[xvii] All three men can be found together on William Carbis’ farm.


Theme - Convict Ancestors & Relations - May 2017


Article 1 - The Crime, the Arrest, the Sentencing

Article 2 - The Family That William Carbis Left Behind


Wiki Tree Link for William Carbis

Sources
[i] White, Charles. 1889. Early Australian history: Convict life in New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land, parts I & II, the story of the ten governors and the story of the convicts. Bathurst: C. & G.S. White "Free Press Office. (2016. Gutenberg.Net.Au. Accessed June 11 2016. http://gutenberg.net.au/ebooks12/1204081h.html#CHAPTER_VIII_AFTER_LANDING)
[ii] Ancestry.com, New South Wales, Australia, Colonial Secretary's Papers, 1788-1856, [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2010. Citing - Series: NRS 937; Reel or Fiche Numbers: Reels 6004-6016 Includes mention of Wm Carbis Snr & Jnr & Francis Bassett  (images 509 to  511 of 7619)
[iii] 1816 'GOVERNMENT AND GENERAL ORDERS.', The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), 11 May, p. 2. , viewed 13 May 2016, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2176651; Ancestry.com. New South Wales, Australia, Colonial Secretary's Papers, 1788-1856 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc, 2010. Original data: New South Wales Government. Main series of letters received, 1788-1825. Series 897, Reels 6041-6064, 6071-6072. State Records Authority of New South Wales. Kingswood, New South Wales, Australia. New South Wales Government. Special Bundles, 1794-1825. Series 898, Reels 6020-6040, 6070; Fiche 3260-3312. State Records Authority of New South Wales. Kingswood, New South Wales, Australia.New South Wales Government. Memorials to the Governor, 1810-25. Series 899, Fiche 3001-3162. State Records Authority of New South Wales. Kingswood, New South Wales, Australia.© the Crown in right of the State of New South Wales and is used under licence with the permission of the State Records Authority. The State of New South Wales gives no warranty regarding the data's accuracy, completeness, currency or suitability for any particular purpose. View Full Source Citation.
[iv] 1817 'GOVERNMENT AND GENERAL ORDERS.', The Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser (NSW : 1803 - 1842), 8 February, p. 2. , viewed 10 Jun 2016, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article2177063  
[v] Ancestry.com. New South Wales, Australia, Settler and Convict Lists, 1787-1834[database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2007. Original data: Home Office: Settlers and Convicts, New South Wales and Tasmania; (The National Archives Microfilm Publication HO10, Pieces 1-4, 6-18, 28-30); The National Archives of the UK (TNA), Kew, Surrey, England. Year 1816 entries for William Carbis & William Carbis (image 104 & 105 of 525)
[vi] Ancestry.com. New South Wales, Australia, Settler and Convict Lists, 1787-1834[database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2007.Original data: Home Office: Settlers and Convicts, New South Wales and Tasmania; (The National Archives Microfilm Publication HO10, Pieces 1-4, 6-18, 28-30); The National Archives of the UK (TNA), Kew, Surrey, England. Entries 1817 for William Carbis & William Carbis Jnr Image 113 & 114; Ancestry.com. New South Wales, Australia, Settler and Convict Lists, 1787-1834[database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2007. Original data: Home Office: Settlers and Convicts, New South Wales and Tasmania; (The National Archives Microfilm Publication HO10, Pieces 1-4, 6-18, 28-30); The National Archives of the UK (TNA), Kew, Surrey, England.  Entries 1819 for Wm Carbis Wm & Wm Carbis Junr (image 164 & 165 of 898); Ancestry.com. New South Wales, Australia, Settler and Convict Lists, 1787-1834[database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2007. Original data: Home Office: Settlers and Convicts, New South Wales and Tasmania; (The National Archives Microfilm Publication HO10, Pieces 1-4, 6-18, 28-30); The National Archives of the UK (TNA), Kew, Surrey, England. Entries for 1820 Wm Carbis Wm & Wm Carbis Junr (image 177 & 178 of  549); Ancestry.com. New South Wales, Australia, Settler and Convict Lists, 1787-1834[database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2007.Original data: Home Office: Settlers and Convicts, New South Wales and Tasmania; (The National Archives Microfilm Publication HO10, Pieces 1-4, 6-18, 28-30); The National Archives of the UK (TNA), Kew, Surrey, England. .Entries 1821 for William Carbis & William Carbis Jnr (image 171 of 478)
[vii] Ancestry.com. New South Wales, Australia, Settler and Convict Lists, 1787-1834[database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2007.
Original data: Home Office: Settlers and Convicts, New South Wales and Tasmania; (The National Archives Microfilm Publication HO10, Pieces 1-4, 6-18, 28-30); The National Archives of the UK (TNA), Kew, Surrey, England.  Entries for Wm Carbis Wm & Wm Carbis Junr (image 164 & 165 of 898)
[viii] Ancestry.com. New South Wales and Tasmania, Australia Convict Musters, 1806-1849 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2007. Original data: Home Office: Settlers and Convicts, New South Wales and Tasmania; (The National Archives Microfilm Publication HO10, Pieces 5, 19-20, 32-51); The National Archives of the UK (TNA), Kew, Surrey, England. Entry for 1822 William Corbis Junior (line 30) (Image 141 of 685); Ancestry.com. New South Wales and Tasmania, Australia Convict Musters, 1806-1849 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2007, Class: HO 10; Piece: 19, Year 1825, Entry for William Carbis (image 229 of 697)
[ix] Note according to the NRNSW website there is Ticket of Leave No. 2003 for William Carbis Snr Refer to index that cites SRNSW, NRS 12188, Bound manuscript indents 1788-1835, Fische 634 [4/4005] Entry for William Carbis page 2;  However a “copy of [4/4003-19]  ...items not available electronically (source " Series Detail ". 2016.Investigator.Records.Nsw.Gov.Au. Accessed June 10 2016.” (http://investigator.records.nsw.gov.au/Entity.aspx?Path=\Series\12188.))
[x] Ancestry.com. 1828 New South Wales, Australia Census (TNA Copy) [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2007. Original data: Home Office: Settlers and Convicts, New South Wales and Tasmania; (The National Archives Microfilm Publication HO10, Pieces 21-28); The National Archives of the UK (TNA), Kew, Surrey, England..  Entry  in HO 10/28 # 511 for Francis Bassett (Image 23 of 663) – [note HO 10/28 is the general muster]; Ancestry.com. 1828 New South Wales, Australia Census (TNA Copy) [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2007. Original data: Home Office: Settlers and Convicts, New South Wales and Tasmania; (The National Archives Microfilm Publication HO10, Pieces 21-28); The National Archives of the UK (TNA), Kew, Surrey, England.. Entry in HO 10/21# 573 Francis Bassett,(image 121 of 382)  note HO 10/21 is the 1828 Census]; Ancestry.com. 1828 New South Wales, Australia Census (TNA Copy) [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2007. Original data: Home Office: Settlers and Convicts, New South Wales and Tasmania; (The National Archives Microfilm Publication HO10, Pieces 21-28); The National Archives of the UK (TNA), Kew, Surrey, England; Johnson, Keith A., and Malcolm R. Sainty. 2001. 1828 census of New South Wales. Sydney Library of Australian History, CD ROM edition.  Entries for William Carbiss Jnr #C0340, .& Francis Bassett # B0573
[xi] SRNSW, Colonial Secretary Correspondence Letters Received 1826-1934 Petitions, 4/2247, 34/205
[xii] Bruce Kercher, The Unruly Child: A History of Law in Australia (Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1995), pp. 22-42
[xiii] Ancestry.com. New South Wales and Tasmania, Australia Convict Musters, 1806-1849 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2007. Original data: Home Office: Settlers and Convicts, New South Wales and Tasmania; (The National Archives Microfilm Publication HO10, Pieces 5, 19-20, 32-51); The National Archives of the UK (TNA), Kew, Surrey, England. Enrty  1825 for Francis Bassett (image 49 of 697)

[xiv] Ancestry. Entries 1817 for William Carbis & William Carbis Jnr, New South Wales, Australia, Settler and Convict Lists, 1787-1834, Home Office: Settlers and Convicts, New South Wales and Tasmania, The National Archives, Kew, Surrey, England. [Image 113 & 114]; Ancestry,  Entries 1819 for Wm Carbis Wm & Wm Carbis Junr New South Wales, Australia, Settler and Convict Lists, 1787-1834, Home Office: Settlers and Convicts, New South Wales and Tasmania; (The National Archives Microfilm Publication HO10, Pieces 1-4, 6-18, 28-30); The National Archives, Kew, Surrey, England. [image 164 & 165 of 898]; Ancestry, Entries for 1821 William Carbis & William Carbis Jnr, New South Wales, Australia, Settler and Convict Lists, 1787-1834, Home Office: Settlers and Convicts, New South Wales and Tasmania, The National Archives, Kew, Surrey, England. [image 171 of 478]

[xv] Ancestry, Entry for 1822 William Corbis Junior (line 30), New South Wales and Tasmania, Australia Convict Musters, 1806-1849, Home Office: Settlers and Convicts, New South Wales and Tasmania, HO10, Pieces 5, 19-20, 32-51, The National Archives, Kew, Surrey, England. [Image 141 of 685]

[xvi] Johnson, Keith A., and Malcolm R. Sainty. 2001. Entry for William Carbiss Jnr #C0340 1828 census of New South Wales. Sydney Library of Australian History, CD ROM edition. SRNSW, Copies of letters sent within the Colony [Colonial Secretary] 1814-1827, NRS 962: Convicts, 4/3666, Reel 1042 , p.338

[xvii] Ancestry, Entry 4/4508, year 1827, No. 326, Permission to marry entry for Francis Bassett & Eliza Jones ; & Entry item# 4/4511, 1827, No. 328, Permission to marry entry for Francis Bassett & Eliza Jones, New South Wales, Australia, Registers of Convicts' Applications to Marry, 1826-1851 Registers of convicts' applications to marry. Kingswood, New South Wales, Australia: State Records Authority of New South Wales. Series 12212, SRNSW, NRS 845 Depositions and other papers, Sydney and Country, 4/8480 , Windsor, Nov 1824-Aug 1836, 4/8480, No 16 Page 319, Reel 2754 [Image 3 & 11 of 16]

Sunday, 14 May 2017

The Family That William Carbis Left Behind

Article 2- Convict Ancestors & Relations

William Carbis Senior/The Older
Figure 1 Descendant Tree for William Carbis. For image credits see below


William Carbis(Senior) was the second of six children to William Carbis and Elizabeth Nechollens.[i]  When he was transported he not only left his parents and five siblings behind but also his wife and three of his four children. His son William and his son-in-law were also convicted and transported with him.[ii] 


William's Parents

William Senior's parents, William Carbis and Elizabeth Nechollens were married in Elizabeth's parish of Sennen, his father, William, travelling from the parish of Paul for the occasion.[iii]

Figure 2 Banns of Marriage between William Carbis & Elizabeth Nechollens. For image credits see below

They stayed in the area. Their first two children, Mary and William Snr., were baptised in the parish of St Buryan in 1758 and 1761 respectively. The four subsequent children were baptised in the parish of Paul and this were the family seemed to settle.

Figure 3 Parish map of the Tip of Cornwall For image credits see below

William's own family

William Carbis Snr. was living in Paul and working as a husbandman when married Ann Drew, also living in Paul in 1783.[iv]

Figure 4 Banns of Marriage between William Carbis & Anne Drew. For image credits see below


William Snr. and Anne had 5 children: Ann Drew, William (The Younger), Martha(who died before the age of one), Martha, and Richard.[v]  In 1812 William Snr. was a seaman or perhaps he was an agricultural labourer out of work (who followed his son to sea for work) William (the younger), to sea to earn a living or avoid detection of the authorities.

When William Snr. was convicted of sheep stealing he was convicted with his son William (the younger), and his son-in-law Francis Bassett.[vi] [Read more about what happened.] There appear to have been strong links between the Carbis and Bassett families. The families seemed to have known each other very well. 

Connections between the Carbis & Bassett Families

The two families lived relatively closely together just walking distance apart according to the newspapers which helps to explain why there was also two marriages between them.  William Carbis Snr's daughter Ann Drew Carbis married Francis Bassett in 1806 and Martha Carbis married Francis' brother John Bassett in 1812.[vii]  It was at the end of 1812 that the crime was committed and the three accused absconded to sea. [viii]  But it wasn’t 1815 that they were caught, convicted and sentenced. It would have been a great drain on those remaining behind in Cornwall having lost 3 bread winners.

It is known that Martha Bassett nee Carbis migrated to Victoria, Australia in 1852 with her husband, John and their adult children.[ix] It is not known if she had any contact with her father, brother or brother-in-law. It is also thought that Richard Carbis may also have come to Australia.

Theme - Convict Ancestors & Relations - May 2017

Article 1 - The Crime, the Arrest, the Sentencing

Wiki Tree Link for William Carbis


Image Citations

Image 1 Descendant Tree for William Carbis. Private Collection of Sandra Williamson

Image 2 Banns of Marriage between William Carbis & Elizabeth Nechollens. "England, Cornwall and Devon Parish Registers, 1538-2010," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org : accessed 26 May 2016), Cornwall Records Office, Truro, Sennen Marriage banns, marriages, 1754-1812, Entry #3 for William Carbis & Eliza Nechollens, married 18th August 1755, p.1 (image 4 of 27 )

Image 3 Parish map of the Tip of Cornwall -  "Cornwall Online Parish Clerks". 2016.Cornwall-Opc.Org. Accessed June 15 2016. http://www.cornwall-opc.org/MAPS/maps.php.- Note two maps used to create new edited image (http://www.cornwall-opc.org/MAPS/parish_map.pdfhttp://www.cornwall-opc.org/MAPS/great_britain.gif )

Image 4 Banns of Marriage between William Carbis & Anne Drew. "England, Cornwall and Devon Parish Registers, 1538-2010," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org : accessed 26 May 2016), Cornwall Records Office, Truro, Paul Marriage banns, marriages, 1754-1813 p.488 Entry for William Carbice and Anna Drew married 29th September 1783 (image 65 of 143)

[i] "England, Cornwall and Devon Parish Registers, 1538-2010," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org : accessed 26 May 2016), Cornwall Records Office, Truro,  St Buryan Baptisms, marriages, burials, 1718-1812, Entry for Mary Carbence, baptised 7th January 1758, p.32, (image 20 of 88 at https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-266-11839-55390-56?cc=1769414); "England, Cornwall and Devon Parish Registers, 1538-2010," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org : accessed 26 May 2016), Cornwall Records Office, Truro,  St Buryan Baptisms, marriages, burials, 1718-1812, Entry for William Carbence, baptised 23rd March 1761 p.34, (image 21 of 88 at https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-266-11839-63031-81?cc=1769414); "England, Cornwall and Devon Parish Registers, 1538-2010," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org : accessed 26 May 2016), Cornwall Records Office, Truro,  St Paul Baptisms, marriages, burials, 1694-1775, Entry for John Carbis, baptised 4th December 1763 p.78 (image 50 of 101 at https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-266-11597-141997-38?cc=1769414); "England, Cornwall and Devon Parish Registers, 1538-2010," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org : accessed 26 May 2016), Cornwall Records Office, Truro,  St Paul Baptisms, marriages, burials, 1694-1775, Entry for Martha Carbis, baptised 17th October 1765 p.81 (image 52 of 101 at https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-266-11597-139946-34?cc=1769414); "England, Cornwall and Devon Parish Registers, 1538-2010," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org : accessed 26 May 2016), Cornwall Records Office, Truro,  St Paul Baptisms, marriages, burials, 1694-1775, Entry for John Collins Carbis, baptised 16th August 1770 p.89 (image 57 of 101 at https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-266-11597-146252-28?cc=1769414); "England, Cornwall and Devon Parish Registers, 1538-2010," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org : accessed 26 May 2016), Cornwall Records Office, Truro,  St Paul Baptisms, marriages, burials, 1694-1775, Entry for Richard Carbis, baptised 8th March 1775 p.97 (Image 60 of 101 at https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-266-11597-141189-30?cc=1769414)

[ii] Ancestry.com. New South Wales, Australia Convict Ship Muster Rolls and Related Records, 1790-1849 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations Inc, 2008. Original data: New South Wales Government. Musters and other papers relating to convict ships. Series CGS 1155, Reels 2417-2428. State Records Authority of New South Wales.  Entries for Wm Carbis Senr, Wm Carbis Junr & Francis Bassett (Image 1 & 2 of 8)

[iii] "England, Cornwall and Devon Parish Registers, 1538-2010," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org : accessed 26 May 2016), Cornwall Records Office, Truro, Sennen Marriage banns, marriages, 1754-1812, Entry #3 for William Carbis & Eliza Nechollens, married 18th August 1755, p.1 (image 4 of 27 at https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-266-12434-39920-25?cc=1769414)
[iv] "England, Cornwall and Devon Parish Registers, 1538-2010," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org : accessed 26 May 2016), Cornwall Records Office, Truro, Paul Marriage banns, marriages, 1754-1813 p.488 Entry for William Carbice and Anna Drew married 29th September 1783 (image 65 of 143 at https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-266-11130-158740-54?cc=1769414)

[v] "England, Cornwall and Devon Parish Registers, 1538-2010," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org : accessed 26 May 2016), Cornwall Records Office, Truro, Paul Baptisms, burials, 1776-1812, Entry for Anne Drew Carbis baptised 14th November 1784 p.17 (image 13 of 82 at https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-266-11597-137203-30?cc=1769414); "England, Cornwall and Devon Parish Registers, 1538-2010," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org : accessed 26 May 2016), Cornwall Records Office, Truro, Paul Baptisms, burials, 1776-1812, Entry for William Carbice baptised 10th May 1789 p.25 (image 18 of 82 at https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-266-11597-140471-83?cc=1769414); "England, Cornwall and Devon Parish Registers, 1538-2010," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org : accessed 26 May 2016), Cornwall Records Office, Truro, Paul Baptisms, burials, 1776-1812, Entry for Martha Carbice baptised 7th October 1792 p.31 (image 21 of 82 at https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-266-11597-146403-25?cc=1769414); "England, Cornwall and Devon Parish Registers, 1538-2010," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org : accessed 26 May 2016), Cornwall Records Office, Truro, Paul Baptisms, burials, 1776-1812, Entry for Martha Carbis buried 13th September 1793 p.111 (image 21 of 82 at https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-266-11597-146403-25?cc=1769414); "England, Cornwall and Devon Parish Registers, 1538-2010," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org : accessed 26 May 2016), Cornwall Records Office, Truro, Paul Baptisms, burials, 1776-1812, Entry for Martha Carbis baptised 5 October 1794 p.36 ( image 26 of 82 at https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-266-11597-144620-24?cc=1769414); "England, Cornwall and Devon Parish Registers, 1538-2010," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org : accessed 26 May 2016), Cornwall Records Office, Truro, Paul Baptisms, burials, 1776-1812, Entry for Richard Carbis baptised 17th August 1797 p.44 (image 30 of 82 at https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:S3HT-DTJ7-DXZ?i=29&wc=3CBW-PYM%3A138123201%2C140206301%2C1582895306%3Fcc%3D1769414&cc=1769414)

[vi] West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser 7th April 1815 Pg. 4; Royal Cornwall Gazette 22nd April 1815

[vii] "England, Cornwall and Devon Parish Registers, 1538-2010," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org : accessed 26 May 2016), Cornwall Records Office, Truro, Paul Marriage banns, marriages, 1754-1813 p.245 Entry for Francis Bassett and Ann Carbis married 7th November 1806 (image 127 of 143 at https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-266-11130-159132-4?cc=1769414); "England, Cornwall and Devon Parish Registers, 1538-2010," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org : accessed 26 May 2016), Cornwall Records Office, Truro, Paul Marriage banns, marriages, 1754-1813 p.273 Entry for John Basset and Martha Carbis married 15th March 1812 (image 141 of 143 at https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.3.1/TH-266-11130-159580-8?cc=1769414)

[viii] West Briton and Cornwall Advertiser 7th April 1815 Pg. 4; Royal Cornwall Gazette 22nd April 1815

[ix] Unassisted Immigration to Victoria - Inward Passenger Lists for British, Foreign and New Zealand Ports 1852-1923 (PROV Series VPRS 7666, 7667 and 7786), Fiche Page B197 009 - DEC 1861, GREAT BRITAIN.

x 2016. Cornwall-Opc.Org. CORNWALL ONLINE PARISH CLERKS website Accessed June 15 2016. http://www.cornwall-opc.org/MAPS/parish_map.pdf

Sunday, 7 May 2017

The Crime, the Arrest, the Sentencing

Article 1 - Convict Ancestors & Relations 


William Carbis Senior/The Older
It was just before Christmas on 13th December 1812 in the small town of Penzance in Cornwall, that two sheep were stolen from Miss Borlase’s herd.[i] The evidence found in the three suspect’s homes had been unequivocal, leaving little doubt in everyone's mind of their guilt. William was arrested along with his son William and his son-in-law Francis Bassett, they were all family men, related to each other by blood and marriage. None of them were present at the time of the constable's raids on their homes, together they had absconded to sea leaving their womenfolk behind. They had returned home after 2 years in 1815 soon after Hoskin the Hind, the main witness had died. Miss Borlase, however, was still intent on pursuing the matter; sheep stealing was a serious capital offence.
Image [1] - Launceston: castle over rooftops for image credits see below

After arrest, they were held for almost 5 months before their case could be heard in the Launceston Assizes, on the 27th of March 1815.  During the court case, no-one was particularly sympathetic or cared to hear their version of the events and all three men were sentenced to death.[ii]  Once sentenced the trio were held in Launceston Jail. The Jail had been built in the grounds of what had once been the Grand Castle of Launceston.  An ignominious place described 20 years earlier as follows - “The Prison is a room or passage twenty three feet and a half by seven and a half, with only one window two feet by one and a half:  and three Dungeons or Cages on the side opposite the window : there are about six and half feet deep; one nine feet long; one about eight; one not five: this last for women. They are all very offensive. No chimney: no drains: no water: damp earth floors: no Infirmary. The yard not secure; and Prisoners seldom permitted to go out to it. Indeed the whole Prison is out of repair”.[iii]
Image [2] Trewman's Exeter Flying Post or Plymouth and Cornish Advertiser February 23, 1815

They were held here jail until 7 Aug 1815, almost 5 months after their death sentence was awarded. During this time their punishment was reduced to a life sentence in New South Wales. [iv] Their case had been heard in the western assize circuit, a court which heard an usually high number of animal thefts cases compared to the rest of England, in fact a “fifth of all those transported from the western circuit were accused of various kinds of animal theft“.[v] 
The Hulk
Image [3] Langstone Harbour for image credits see below

William was one of 5 prisoners who had been convicted before the 1816 Lent court session together they were transferred to the Portland Hulk. The conditions on the Hulk were not much better than they had been in Launceston jail, the Hulk was very old and dilapidated, so bad that it was decommissioned in 1817.[vi]    It was usual for Hulk prisoners to work on the shore during the day, work that would provide them with meager savings that could be used to ease their conditions.  However in Langstone Harbour where the Portland was moored there was not enough employment for all the convicts.  The authorities were only able to place one third of prisoners on shore at Fort Cumberland the rest needed to stay on board the Hulk.[vii]  It was indeed difficult for inmates.  Prisoners were confined to the Hulk during most of the day however they ate on shore in specially provided sheds for that purpose. At night they were confined to one of four decks with no lighting although although some had private lights to read and work by at night. In total they spent 53 long days and nights on the Hulk in less than optimal conditions before being discharged to the government contracted transport ship the Ocean on the 22 August 1815 in preparation for their journey to Australia.[viii]  
The Ocean & Arrival in Australia
William was on board the Ocean when it finally began its journey from England in August 1815, with 220 passengers on board.   Of the 219 convicts who arrived in Australia, 98 of them had life sentences, the only free passenger on board the ship was Rev. John Youl from the British and Foreign Bible Society. [ix] 
Image 4 “The Bible prized by Convicts” for image credits see below
Rev. Youl ran classes every day based on the scriptures,  resulting in a number learning to read despite the initial opposition of some of the convicts.[x]
The journey itself took just under six months and included a seven-day layover in Rio as the ship picked up cargo to be added to the human cargo of convicts already on board. The additional cargo included imported goods that were to be sold on arrival in Australia and included alcohol, confectionery, hardware, clothing and other household goods, all which would help improve the profits for the ship owners.[xi]
Only one convict died during the journey, due to a gale of wind causing him to accidentally fall down the hatchway from the deck above. The accident was not surprising as the men wore leg irons for the first part of the journey and there were lots of small casualties from people falling about the decks.[xii]  The men spent 10 hours out of 24 below decks; the heat below must have been unbearable as the ship crossed the equator.  Relief from the oppressive heat below would only have been possible on the open deck above.  The reasons to be on deck included participating in Rev. Youl's classes or performing allocated duties such as cleaning or assisting with the cooking or other ship chores.
Image 5 View of the entrance into Port Jackson taken from a boat lying under the North Head - for image credits see below
 Port Jackson must have been a welcome sight when they arrived on 30th  January 1816.[xiii] 
Click here to see References
Image Credits
[1] Chris Downer (2005). Launceston: castle over rooftops SX3384 Geograph(CC BY-SA 2.0) http://www.geograph.org.uk/photo/571483
[2] Anon, 'Postscript', Trewman's Exeter Flying Post or Plymouth and Cornish Advertiser, Thursday, February 23, 1815; Issue 2581. Column 1
[3] Ancestry, First page of Portland Hulk Register, Prison Hulk Registers and Letter Books, 1802-1849 Home Office: Convict Prison Hulks: Registers and Letter Books, 1802-1849. Microfilm, HO9, 5 rolls. The National Archives, Kew, England.[Image 11 of 47]; Map of Langstone Harbour, " This work is based on data provided through
www.VisionofBritain.org.uk and uses historical material which is copyright of the Great Britain Historical GIS Project and the University of Portsmouth". created from  "Ordnance Survey Of Great Britain New Popular Edition, 181 - Chichester". 2016. Visionofbritain.Org.Uk. Accessed June 15 2016. http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/maps/sheet/new_pop/264_181.  (CC By-SA 4.0); Prison Hulk [Picture]. 2016. Nla.Gov.Au. Accessed June 15 2016. 'National Library of Australia' http://nla.gov.au/nla.pic-an5487524-1
[4] “The Bible prized by Convicts” Christian Herald and Seaman's Magazine, Volume 4 1816  Page 218 
[5] Henry Brewer, View of the entrance into Port Jackson taken from a boat lying under the North Head [picture] 1790. National Library of Australia, nla.pic-an4910576. Accessed June 15 2016.  http://nla.gov.au/nla.pic-an4910576 

Blogging Intentions for May 2017

This month's theme for my Blog Posts after a late start is going to be:-

Convict Ancestors & Relations 


  1. William Carbis (Senior) my fourth Great Grandfather
  2. William Carbis (Junior / The Younger) my third Great Grand Uncle
  3. Francis Bassett also my third Great Grand Uncle
Who arrived in Australia together in 1816.
Artist: Captain N Wallis, Engraving North and South Heads in Port Jackson, c.1818, digital image, Australian National Maritime Museum Collection 00000871 © Commonwealth of Australia 2006 Accessed 8 May 2017 http://emuseum.anmm.gov.au/code/emuseum.asp?id=48015 

One post a week for the next four weeks, including today.

These posts were originally created as part of my studies for the Diploma of Family History at UTAS in 2016 and have since been updated for inclusion on my Blog. 

Saturday, 6 May 2017

A to Z Reflection Post

This was my first A to Z Challenge. So I came to the task with no preconceived ideas. I have written this post in response to a request from the organisers of the Challenge, who have asked participants to provide feedback and thoughts on the Challenge.  




Below are my answers to their questions:-


What did you like best?  
I liked the feeling of camaraderie, of doing something with a larger group. It also encouraged me visit new blogs which is something that I don’t normally do unless they come up in a Google Search when I am on the hunt for something.

I have had a Blog for a number of years but have never really understood the mechanics of social media.  The initial coaching emails for the AtoZ Challenge from the  moderators were great as they helped me to learn the ropes quickly.  From this base, I was then able to find other resources to supplement my learning which was fantastic.

What did you like least?  

I didn’t do anything I didn’t like.

What worked for you and what didn't? 

As this was my first time to participate, I will probably approach things slightly different next time but how I’m not yet sure.  I wished I’d allocated more time to visit more blogs, I just ran out of time.

You can tell us about favourite themes you ran across during the Challenge.  


Build a Better Blog by Shirly Conder

Romance Spinners which did a fabulous series on a tour of the universe, everyone should check them out.

Or tell us about some of your favourite posts.  

There were so many I’m not sure where to begin

You can even tell us your favourite posts on your own blog.  

A to Z Challenge - Z is for Zero is one of my favourite blogposts where I pull the whole challenge together into one place and can see what I’ve achieved, and where I need to go next.

Perhaps this would be good time to publish a singular list of all those who got through the whole month excellent idea!


I belong to the wider genealogical community where there has been a lot of discussion about whether bloging is dead see a very recent post by Amy Johnson Crow her conclusion is Blogging Isn't Dead; It's Just Different.

Much to think about.


A big thank you to the organisers of the A to Z Challenge who did a wonderful job coordinating and supporting those who participated.  Looking forward to participating next year’s challenge, once I’ve recovered from the 2017 Challenge.

Saturday, 29 April 2017

A to Z Challenge - Z is for Zero

Snippets from the life of Martha Sarah Ellis.


Z is for Zero - no more 2017 A to Z Challenges left to do!


It had seemed simple enough 26 posts for the month of April 2017 with all Sundays except the last Sunday of the month off (how did I miss that?)

At the beginning of 2017, I decided to write a book about the life of Martha Sarah Ellis. Why? 
Because women’s stories are often lost or not sought after as the victors of history write their stories. 
So my quest began, to pull the data I had gathered over 25 years of research into some sort of digestible form suitable for reading.

Three months later with papers strewn all over my desk and my computer screen, I still hadn’t managed to pull together any stories suitable for publication of any sort.  Then I came across the A to Z Challenge – a way to focus my writing and research. 

And so the odyssey began the “Snippets from the life of Martha Sarah Ellis.” A series of blog posts roughly charting the life and concerns of my protagonist, Martha, life.  

Still no stories but now I have a much firmer foundation to begin my storytelling as a gift to my descendants.

Blogposts During the Challenge


A is for Addresses
B is Booths Poverty maps
C is for Census
D is for Daughter
E is for Education - Updated and revised on 10 May 2017
F is for Fremantle
G is for Getting employment as a new arrival
H is for Help Required
I is for Immigration
J is for January Weddings.
K is for Kate Ellen Ellis
L is Little Lottie
M is for Mortuary Photo
N is for Names
O is for Offspring – Martha’s not Walter’s for possible Walter Offspring read the entry for Y
P is for step-Parent 
Q is for Quarrelsome
R is for the Rest, Relaxation & the Races
S is for the storm of 1909
T is for Ted otherwise known as Edward
U is for Unions and Marriages
V is for the Vicissitudes of Martha
W is for Walter Todman
X marks the spot
Y is for Y chromosome

To find find the links for the above posts scroll down to the end of this post


Blogposts involving Martha before the A to Z challenge


Blogposts involving Walter Todman Martha’s husband  before the A to Z challenge



Looking back over my blog, it seems I’ve been trying to do  a version of this since 2013 when I wrote my a first blog post entitled “Converting research into stories is it possible?” on Sunday, 20 January 2013

Well, I’m glad to say that it is possible.  Based in part on those 2013 blog posts a book has now been published Entitled “John Ebbott of Badharlick – Descendants in Australia 1852-2015”  which I am one of the three authors.
Photographer Sandra Williamson, front cover of the book, John Ebbott of Badharlick : descendants in Australia 1852-2015, compiled by William Barlow, Bob Ebbott, & Sandra Williamson published 2015. Available to read at the State Library of Victoria.

I'd also like to thank those who were so kind to drop in and leave comments, it was very encouraging and help to fuel the desire to do a bit more. 

Now to write the life story of Martha Sarah Ellis wish me luck!

To Read more about Martha's life for articles previously posted for the A to Z Challenges click the Letters below:-

A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z